Emperor Reign Description
Babur 1526–1530 Was a direct descendant of Genghis Khan through Timur and was the founder of the Mughal Empire after his victories at the Battle of Panipat (1526) and the Battle of Khanwa
Humayun I- 1530–1540 Reign interrupted by Suri Dynasty. Being young and inexperienced led him to be regarded as a less effective ruler than Sher Shah Suri, who defeated him and established the Suri Dynasty.
Humayun II – 1555–1556 Restored rule was more unified and effective than the initial reign of 1530–1540. He left the unified empire to his son, Akbar.
Akbar (was one of the youngest rulers. Became a ruler at the age of 13) 1556–1605 He and Bairam Khan defeated Hemu during the Second Battle of Panipat and later won famous victories during the Siege of Chittorgarh and the Siege of Ranthambore. One of his most famous construction marvels was the Lahore Fort. He abolished Jizyah tax imposed on Hindus.
Jahangir 1605–1627 Opened relations with the British East India Company.
Shah Jahan 1628–1658 Born on 5th January 1592.Under him, Mughal art and architecture reached their zenith.He constructed the Taj Mahal, Jama Masjid, Red Fort, Jahangir mausoleum, and Shalimar Gardens in Lahore. Died in the captivity of his son Aurangzeb.
Aurangzeb 1658–1707 He ascended the throne on 31st July 1658.He reinterpreted Islamic law and presented the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri.He captured the diamond mines of the Sultanate of Golconda and spent the major part of his last 27 years in the war with the Maratha rebels and expanded the empire to its greatest extent.
Bahadur Shah I (also known as Muazzam/Shah Alam I) 1707–1712 After his reign, the empire went into steady decline due to the lack of leadership qualities among his immediate successors. He released Shahuji, Son of Shambuji, who was the elder son of Shivaji.
Jahandar Shah 1712–1713 Was an unpopular incompetent titular figurehead.
Furrukhsiyar 1713–1719 His reign marked the ascendancy of the manipulative Syed Brothers, execution of the rebel Banda. In 1717 he granted a Firman to the English East India Company granting them duty-free trading rights for Bengal. The Firman was repudiated by the notable Murshid Quli Khan.
Rafi Ul-Darjat 1719 The 10th Mughal Emperor. He succeeded Furrukhsiyar, being proclaimed Badshah by the Syed Brothers.
Rafi Ud-Daulat 1719 Was Mughal emperor for a brief period in 1719.
Muhammad Ibrahim (Claimant to the throne) 1720 Brother of Rafi Ul-Darjat.Attempted to seize the throne at the behest of the Syed Brothers in order to depose emperor Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah (also called Rangeela) 1719–1720 Got rid of the Syed Brothers. Countered the emergence of the renegade Marathas and lost large tracts of the Deccan and Malwa in the process. Suffered the invasion of Nadir-Shah of Persia in 1739.
Ahmad Shah Bahadur 1748–1754 Son of Muhammad Shah. His Minister Safdarjung was responsible for the Mughal Civil War.  He was defeated at Sikandarabad by the Maratha Confederacy.
Alamgir II 1754–1759 He was murdered by a conspiracy of Imad-Ul-Mulk and his Maratha associate Sadashivrao Bhau
Shah Jahan III 1759-1760 He was overthrown after the Third Battle of Panipat by Prince Mirza Jawan Bakht.
Shah Alam II 1760–1806 He is known to have fought against the British East India Company during the Battle of Buxar and reformed the Mughal Army under the command of Mirza Najaf Khan, He is thus known as one of the last effective Mughal Emperors.
Akbar Shah II 1806–1837 He designated Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur as the new Nawab of Sindh. Although he was under British protection his imperial name was removed from the official coinage after a brief dispute with the British East India Company.
Bahadur Shah II 1837–1857 He was the last Mughal Emperor. He was deposed by the British and exiled to Burma following the Indian Rebellion of 1857.