ENGLISH Challenging Words in the Article– 12-12-2017

1) Unravel (verb) – (खंडित) – un-ra-vel
Meaning – to cause something to separate or come apart
Synonyms –   solve/resolve, clarify, decipher/explain.
Antonyms –  tangle , confuse , ravel
Example – Detectives are still trying to unravel the mystery surrounding the sudden death of famous politician .

2) Scepticism (noun)  ( संदेहवाद) – escapti-ism
Meaning –   doubt as to the truth of something.
Synonyms –   doubt, suspicion, disbelief.
Antonyms –   trust , belief , definiteness
Example – He expressed his scepticism about the usefulness of new techniques introduced in the market.

3) Credence (noun) – (धारणा, आस्था ) -cre-dance
Meaning- mental acceptance as true or real
Synonyms – credibility, reliability, plausibility/believability.
Antonyms –  distrust , doubt , uncertainty
Example – Since you have a history of lying, I find it difficult to give credence to anything you tell me.

4) Transient (adjective) (क्षणिक) – transi-ant
Meaning -lasting only for a short time , impermanent
Synonyms – transitory, temporary, short-lived
Example – If you are a transient person, you never remain in one place for too long.

5) Combative (adjective) (जुझारू, लड़ाकू) – com-bative
Meaning –  ready to fight; argumentative
Synonyms –   aggressive, argumentative, contentious.
Antonyms – peaceful , agreeable , pacifist
Example – Becoming combative on the field, the overly aggressive player was asked to sit on the bench until he could compose himself.

6) Underpin (Verb)   (नीचे से सहारा देना) –  under-pin
Meaning – \support, justify, or form the basis for.
Synonyms –  support, buttress, form (a basis).
Antonyms – weaken , attenuate , break
Example – It is important to significantly increase the programme’s size, so as to underpin business confidence.

7)  Bolster (verb) (मजबूत बनाना) –  boles-tur
Meaning – to make something stronger or bolder
Synonyms –  strengthen, support, reinforce.
Antonyms – Bully , undermine , obstructive
Example – Free tickets were given away to bolster audience at the concert.

8)  Substantive (adjective) (मूल) –  subs-tan-tive
Meaning –  important & meaningful , associated with issues of key importance
Synonyms – significant , essential
Antonyms – unimportant , meaningless
Example – As a busy employee, Phil is tired of attending monthly meetings that are not substantive to his work.

9) Contentious (adjective)  (विवादास्पद) – con-ten-ti-us
Meaning – causing or likely to cause an argument
Synonyms – controversial, debatable, disputed.
Antonyms – pacifist , agreeable , peaceful
Example – The author wrote a contentious novel which caused a great deal of unrest.

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